The Art of Ancient Rome


First Style Roman Wall Painting from the Samnite House
ca. 200–60 B.C
First style Roman wall paintings were designed by the plebeians to resemble expensive materials such as granite. These Roman wall paintings use cheap materials that the plebeians could afford. Once the patricians found out about these wall paintings, another style of wall painting was invented.
(Erin Golotko)

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The Colosseum
ca. 70-80 B.C.
The Colosseum was used for an ampitheatre. It was used for animal and gladatorial fights.Underneath the stage, there are holding chambers for the animals, and the people ( usually christian) that we persecuted.What is now the Colosseum, there used to be an artificial lake in its place. It can hold about 50,000 spectators and has arcades.It also had a optional covering for the pavillion for really sunny days.Vespian had paid for the Coloseum, but died in 79 B.C. before he could see it in use.

"Temple of Fortuna Virilis"
ca. 75 B.C.
This Republican temple, located in Rome, Italy, combines both Greek and Etruscan elements. Inspired by the Greeks, this temple incorporates Ionic volutes in its capitals and an Ionic frieze. Its Etruscan influence is shown through the addition of a high podium only accessible in the front, elevated base, and wide flat steps. There are freestanding Ionic columns on the porch and Ionic half-columns on the sides and the back of the temple, making it a pseudoperipteral layout. Unlike the Greeks, Romans preferred a closed sacred space for worship. Although the temple fuses Greek and Etruscan elements, it is truly Roman.
(Jessica Rances)
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Second Style Roman Walll Painting in Room 5 of the Villa of Mysteries
ca. 60-50 B.C.
Second style Roman wall paintings created a 3D effect by creating the illusion of a shallow ledge. In a lot of the second style paintings, including this one, mortals were portrayed interacting with mythological figures. They sometimes even told stories using Greek myths and Roman mythology. Male rooms tended to have architecture painted on the walls of their rooms and women tended to have landscapes and nature painted on the walls in their rooms.
(Tara Lassi)

Second style roman wall painting

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Fresco wall painting in a cubiculum (bedroom) from the Villa of P. Fannius Synistor at Boscoreale, ca. 40–30 B.C.; Late Republican

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Portrait of Augustus as general.
(20 BCE)
This is a Statue of Augustus as a General. He is shown extending his hand as if he is talking to his troops as they are equals. He is shown with idealistic features, and has a smaller statue of Cupid, attached to him to prove Divine Lineage. He greatly resembles Polykleito's Doryphoros. His breast plate is a piece of art used to show his victories in battle. This shows his enemies he is strong, divine, and able to control his men. His body style of one arm tense and one leg tense is also known as Chiastic Balance.

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Pont-du-Gard Aqueduct

(16 BCE)

This incredible aqueduct was pure genuis for the Romans. It carries hundreds of gallons of clean, fresh water every day from hundreds of miles. They go over mountains and goes up hill sometimes. This is done simply because of gravity and mathematic proportions. The arches are exactly 30 feet apart each. The arches and height from ground to the top is also exact.
(Cody Taflinger)

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Ara Pacis Augustae

ca. 13-9 BCE
The Ara Pacis Augustae is an altar of Augustan Peace that depicts many different scenes and stories. The four panels on the west side depict mythological subjects. Other scenes include Mother Nature and earth, sky, sea, and peace. It was built during the Pax Romana which was a time of peace in Rome. The altar is on an elevated platform and an unsculpted frieze which are Etruscan characteristics.
(Peyton Fowler)
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Detail of Third Style Roman Wall Painting (c.10 BC)

This Third Style Roman Wall painting was found from the cubiculum 15 of the Villa of Agrippa Postumus. The patrons of this style, like the Second Style were the rich. The rich completely changed their style of wall painting because the poor started to imitate their Second Style paintings. This style was dramatically different because the artist did not use illusionistic painting "penetrate" the wall. There were tiny floating landscapes painted directly on a black background which made the design simplistic and monochromatic. The landscapes were usually of landscapes or mythological scenes. The columns painted in this style were very skinny and elegant looking. Whereas the Second Style had a cluttered look to it, this style took away all the clutter to portray pure elegance as part of a minimalist movement. (Emily Rice).

Maison Carree
ca. 1-10 CE.
Tha Maison Carree was made during the Early Empire and it was a temple to worship gods. This new style of building valued conctete and used alot of new technology to build there temples. It has a unsculpted petement, at the top, and have engaged columns. It has a lifted base from the groud. The Maison Carree was a place of worship and it only have one door unlife many of the former temples.
(Tori Fischer)

Fourth style Roman wall painting.
ca. 20-54 AD.
The fourth style of wall paintings produced by the Romans was made to basically blend all of the different wall paintings from before into one, and this was supposed to show that you had more class or what wealthier people would put in their homes. The reason why the types of wall paintings kept changing was just because the rich wanted to be separated from the poor.
(Travis Ivancevich)

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Temple of Vesta (Early First Century)

This Roman Temple is located in Tivoli, Italy and is unique because of the circular plan and the travertine corinthian columns. This temple was inspired by the Greek tholos temples, but uses different architectural techniques. The frieze is carved with garlands held up by oxen heads. The high podium can only be reached by a narrow stairway leading to the cella post and lintel door. Concrete was used to construct the cella wall and window. This temple is important for several reasons, one of which being that it introduced anaxial alignment not found in Greek temples, indicating, once again, the Roman's tendency to imitate and improve. This temple is an example of regional variations in style and sacred spaces. (Caroline Freeborn)

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Arch Of Titus, Rome, Italy, after 81ce.
The Arch Of Titus is a triumphal arch in Titus's honor on the Sacred Way leading into the Republican Forum Romanum. It is a typical early arch because it only has one passage way. The engaged columns are in composite style, which means there is a combination of Ionic volutes and Corinthian leaves. Inside it is the relief sculptures of the triumphal parade of Titus down the Sacred Way after his return from the conquest of Judaea. (Marcela Algave)
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Trajan's Column (112 c.e.)
Trajan's column was probably the first work showing a continuous spiral narrative frieze, this concept was then seen in many other pieces of work throughout the times. It is thought to have had a heroically nude statue of the emperor on the top of it but it was lost some time during the middle ages, a statue of St. Peter replaced it. The column is one hundred and twenty eight feet high and the band around it is six hundred twenty five feet depicting one hundred and fifty episodes in which some twenty five hundred figures appear. The episodes depict Trajan's two successful campaigns.
(Andrew Malinowski)


Interior of the Pantheon

118-125 CE
The dome of the Pantheon is a perfect sphere. The dome is 142 feet in diameter. At the top is a hole called the oculus. This "hole" offers light into the building. It also tells worshippers that God is always watching and can see who is praying. As the dome nears the oculus, the thickness decreases. The square indentions around the dome are coffers. This structure is amazing because it reveals the full potential of concrete. There is symbolic meaning in which the interior space is used to represent the orb of the earth, and the dome symbolizes the vault of heavens.
(Allie Bailey)

Exterior of the Pantheon
(118-125 CE.)
Like Allie explained, the Pantheon was constructed of concrete. Concrete helps explain how this massive building was built. The building exerts nearly 5,000 tons, which explains the 20ft thick walls that circulate the dome. The weight of the base is much more than that of the top of the dome. The upper portion is constructed of pumice which is lightweight compared to the heavy concrete they used. This gives the building the ability to hold such weight and allows it to last much longer than earlier architecture. Very well respected by Romans as well as people today.
(Blake Denz)

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Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius (175 CE)
The creator of this equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius is unknown but it was a break with the past that inspired many Renaissance sculptors to portray their patrons on horseback. This bronze statue depicts the emperor with superhuman grandeur and much larger than any normal human would be in relation to a horse. Marcus Aurelius stretches out his arm in a gesture that's both a greeting and offer of clemency. Since he is conveyed as ruler of the world this piece of art serves as propaganda glorifying the ruler Marcus Aurelius.

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Arch of Constantine(312-315 A.D.)
This arch was to commemorate the victory of uniting Rome. Constantine thanked the Christian God for his victory, as he said he saw him in a dream. This arch is different from the arch of Titus or the arch of Trajan. This arch varies from them because of its three arches, with one big arch in the middle and two smaller arches on each side of the bigger one. This arch has scenes carved in it portraying the siege of Verona and the Battle of Milvian Bridge in which Constantine's army forced his enemy into the Tiber River and drowned them. Please don't edit this I'll be back soon to finish it.
(Weston Riddle)
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Arch of Constantine (312-315 CE.)

The Arch of Constantine is located in Rome, Italy. The arch was erected to commemorate Constantine's defeat of Maxentius. It is the largest erected in Rome since the end of the Severan dynasty and it consists of sculpted decorations taken from earlier monuments of Trajan, Hadrian, and Marcus Aurelius. Some sculptures on the arch were selected to associate Constantine with the "good emperors" of the second century and another relief shows him with majestic presence surrounded by his attendants. The main difference between the Arch of Constatine and the Arch of Titus is the triple-passageway on the Arch of Constantine.
(Nicole Swisher)